Monopitch and monoloudness may occur. Pallilalia, or the compulsive repetition of syllables, is sometimes present.
Freezing This will be discussed in greater detail a little later.
Diseases associated specifically with lesions of the basal ganglia include Huntington's Chorea and Sydenham's Chorea. The word "chorea" comes from the Greek "khoros" which means to dance. Both of these diseases are associated with jerky, uncontrolled movements of the limbs.
Sydenham's chorea was probably the cause of the malady that was known as St. Vitus' Dance during the middle ages. Huntington's Chorea is an inherited degenerative disease. These will be discussed further a little later. Essential Tremor Syndrome, which is associated with spastic dysphonia may also be the result of basal ganglia lesions.
Lesions of the basal ganglia will also cause hyperkinetic dysarthria. Note that not only is the definition of the extrapyramidal system controversial, but also many sources say that it is very difficult to make functional distinctions between the extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems.
When upper motor neuron lesions occur, it is often difficult to determine which tract has been damaged. Hyperkinetic Dysarthria Hyperkinetic dysarthria results from damage to the extrapyramidal tract.
It specifically results from lesions of the basal ganglia. The extrapyramidal system is involved in automatic motor movements and works with the autonomic nervous system to control posture and muscle tone.
Components of the extrapyramidal system include the basal ganglia caudate and lenticular nucleithe red nucleus, the substantia nigra, the reticular formation and the cerebellum.
Also included are the rubro spinal, reticulo spinal, and vestibulo spinal tracts. The latter runs from the vestibular nucleus in the pons to the spinal cord. The vestibular nucleus also connects to the semicircular canals in the ear and to the cerebellum for balance and orientation in space.
Again, hyperkinetic dysarthria most often results from damage to the basal ganglia specifically. Dworkin describes hyperkinetic movements as quick, jerky and unsustained as with Huntington's chorea, or slow, writhing and sustained as observed in people with athetosis and dystonia. He describes those with essential tremor and myoclonus as having tremorous movements.
As you can see there are several different types of speech movement abnormalities in people with hyperkinetic dysarthria.
Dworkin's text is exclusively on remediation of motor speech disorders. While being mindful that there is a good deal of diversity among patients, Dworkinp. Lingual, labial, and mandibular force physiology training.
Phonetic stimulation in various contexts. Conditions that may cause hyperkinetic dysarthria include essential tremor syndrome, chorea, athetosis, and dystonia and tardive dyskinsia. All result in the suprimposition of automatic movements upon volitional movements.
Essential tremor syndrome is also known as heredofamilial tremor. Usually, various parts of the body, including the jaw, head and hands are affected, displaying oscillatory movements superimposed upon voluntary and involuntary movements.
When only the laryngeal musculature is affected, the condition is called organic voice tremor.Hypokinetic dysarthria Damage reduces movement, When substantia nigra neurons become destroyed, dopamine supply to the striatum is reduced and its role in the circuit is diminished Hypokinetic Dysarthria.
Hypokinetic Dysarthria and Hyperkinetic dysarthria are both neuromotor speech disorders. They are both associated with damage to the Basal Ganglia. In defining the word Hypokinetic, Hypo means “lack of” and kinetic means “movement”, forming the definition of a lack of movement.
Question. What are the speech characteristics associated with hypokinetic dysarthria as seen in Parkinson’s Disease? Answer The prominent speech characteristics are reduced vocal loudness and vocal decay, meaning that over time there is a fading in the loudness. Hypokinetic dysarthria: A motor speech disorder caused by damage to the part of the brain called the basal ganglia which in turn affects the muscles involved in speech.
Causes include infection. Stroke, tumor and ataxic cerebral palsy. Hypokinetic dysarthria also manifests as a lack of variability in pitch or loudness, wherein a patient may demonstrate monopitch, monoloudness, or reduced .
Hyperkinetic Dysarthria: Neuromotor Deficits Abnormal involuntary movements occur at rest, during sustained postures or during voluntary movement “hyper” refers to excessive or extra movements and does not imply that the speed of .